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1、<p>  本科畢業(yè)論文(設計)</p><p><b>  外文翻譯</b></p><p>  題 目 企業(yè)企業(yè)文化建設研究 </p><p>  學(xué) 院 商學(xué)院

2、 </p><p>  專(zhuān) 業(yè) 人力資源管理 </p><p>  外文題目 Enterprise culture:necessary in promoting enterprise </p><p>  

3、外文出處 Journal of Enterpring Culture </p><p>  外文作者 Steven Carter </p><p><b>  原文二 :</b></p>

4、<p>  Enterprise culture:necessary in promoting enterprise</p><p>  Steven Carter</p><p>  The paper investigates the effects of the Zimbabwean national culture on enterprise development.

5、 In-depth interviews were carried out with fifteen entrepreneurs and seven members of the community whose role was to support entrepreneurs. It was established that the national culture impeded enterprise development and

6、 the factors identified are: bad debt culture, let's-pull-him-downsyndrome, dependency syndrome, high living, and absence of role models, refusal to accept entrepreneurship, employing </p><p>  INTRODUCT

7、ION</p><p>  Earlier research on enterprise development mainly focused on the personal characteristics/traits of the individual, such as the need for achievement, locus of control, the ability to take risk,

8、etc (McClelland, 1962; McClelland and Winter, 1969; Bellu, 1988; Rotter, 1966). Curran (1994) argued that traits alone were inadequate to explain entrepreneurship, and some found no direct link between traits and entrepr

9、eneurial behaviour (Bird, 1988; Guth, 2001). Hence, further research moved on to consi</p><p>  policies) that affect enterprise development. It was argued that countries desiring to promote enterprise devel

10、opment need to address these environmental factors (Telantino, 1995; UNCTAD, 1995; Gnyawaii, 1994; Bird, 1989; Chell, 1985; Vaselainen, 1999).</p><p>  Enterprise development has been viewed as a means of re

11、ducing unemployment, easing other social problems and as the best way of creating wealth in a country (Nolan, 2003; Storey, 2000). As a result of the above reasons, both developing and developed countries have embraced e

12、nterprise development.</p><p>  Like many other countries, Zimbabwe has run enterprise development programmes, created and adopted policies aimed at creating a conducive environment for enterprise developmen

13、t. Unfortunately, the efforts to promote enterprise development in Zimbabwe have not been successful(Mlambo, 2000; UNDP, 2000).</p><p>  The paper explores the factors that make up the Zimbabwean national cu

14、lture relating to enterprise development. It also establishes the effects that these factors have had on enterprise development.</p><p>  LITERATURE REVIEW</p><p>  Culture is defined as a set o

15、f historically evolved, learned values, attitudes and meanings shared by the members of a given community, that inlluence their material and non-material way of life (Tayeb, 1988). These evolve through different stages o

16、f socialisation, through institutions like family, religion, formal education etc. It was further asserted that different cultures influence enterprise development differently (Hofstede, 1991). Furthermore, others believ

17、e that the national culture sho</p><p>  Entrepreneurs who enjoy 'high-living' at the expense of their enterprises have difficulties in succeeding (Spring, 1998). In both developed and developing cou

18、ntries, some graduates dislike being associated with working for Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and self-employment. This makes it difficult for some countries to promote enterprise as it is not accepted by the very

19、people who have the best capacity to succeed as business people and Morrison (2000) argues that formal education system is</p><p>  Meyanathan (1994) demonstrated the difficulties in promoting enterprise in

20、a country that favours a certain group of people over others; because the ones favoured will develop a sense of entitlement, whilst the neglected resent the entire system.</p><p>  Literature researched has

21、discussed different aspects of culture that have affected enterprise development, but there has not been a comprehensive catalogue of these factors that make up a national culture relating to enterprise development. Henc

22、e, this paper explores the factors that make up the national culture, and, in particular, those relating to enterprise development in Zimbabwe.</p><p>  RESEARCH METHOD</p><p>  The paper seeks

23、to explore and explain the cultural factors that have negatively affected enterprise development in Zimbabwe. There is need to answer the questions, what are the national cultural factors that have affected enterprise de

24、velopment in Zimbabwe, how have they affected it and why? Hence, an interpretive approach was adopted (Carson, 2001). Within interpretivism, a qualitative research approach was used. This approach allows the inclusion of

25、 tacit knowledge and experience of the resea</p><p>  The sample was made up of twenty-two respondents (elites). All respondents were 'elites' chosen for their expert knowledge (Remenyi,1998; Lincoln

26、 and Guba, 1990) of enterprise development in Zimbabwe.Among them were fifteen entrepreneurs and seven respondents whose occupations or activities supported entrepreneurs. The purpose for sampling the other seven'el

27、ites' was triangulation (Remenyi, 1998;Lincoln and Guba 1990; Carson 2001). There was needed to get a different view from that of entrepren</p><p>  entrepreneurs (from financial organisations, developme

28、nt and training organisations and the government). These respondents had supported entrepreneurs through financing, training etc. for at least six years. All entrepreneurs interviewed were business people who had started

29、 and managed their enterprises for more than six years.</p><p>  Consistent with this research approach, face-to-face in-depth interviews were carried out using an interview guide. The interview guide was ba

30、sed on the themes that had been obtained from literature and needed further exploration. Respondents were asked to identify and discuss all factors they believed had negatively affected enterprise development in Zimbabwe

31、.</p><p>  The collected data was analysed using the thematic analysis, as described by Miles and Huberman (1994), and Wengraf (2001). The research was conducted in two phases. The initial phase culminated i

32、n establishing a list of cultural factors that have affected enterprise development. After the first round ofinterviews with the 22 respondents, their responses were analysed. The results were then subjected to further s

33、crutiny by nine respondents who had taken part in the first round of interviews, and</p><p>  The research methodology adopted allows the researcher to use tacit knowledge and experience throughout the proce

34、ss; hence there will be instances (in presenting the findings) where some assertions are not sourced,but are attributed to the researchers' knowledge and experience of Zimbabwe.Consistent with the research method, in

35、 presenting findings of this research, a summary of the respondents' views is provided and to emphasise this position some quotations are included in the text and a sample</p><p>  One respondent said: r

36、emember, our culture does not necessarily promote people who succeed. Success is not very much part of our culture.</p><p>  From the respondents' point of view, one of the reasons why enterprise develop

37、ment did not flourish in Zimbabwe was its national culture.The factors that make up the Zimbabwean national culture and have negatively affected enterprise development are: bad-debt culture, absence of role models, let&#

38、39;s pull-him-down syndrome, dependency syndrome, poor quality goods and service delivery, refusing to accept entrepreneurship as a way of life, employing relatives (kith and kin) and high living.The above </p>&l

39、t;p>  Bad-debt Culture</p><p>  One entrepreneur said: people do not payback because there is bad debt culture; it is bad debt culture, which we need to jight. United Merchant Bank (UMB) went under, it we

40、nt down because people were not paying back, though the owner had wanted to help fellow indigenous people.</p><p>  Although some respondents held this view, it should be noted that non-payment was not the o

41、nly reason why UMB went into liquidation.UMB was established at the height ofindigenisation and by an indigenous entrepreneur. UMB considered itself a champion ofindigenisation and accused the traditional multinational b

42、anks of failing to support indigenous entrepreneurs. On a weekly basis, this bank advertised in the national press, the need to indigenise and made the accusations mentioned above.According</p><p>  project

43、viability and management. As a result, good project proposals (on paper) were produced, received funding; unfortunately, money was not paid back and without collateral the bank could not recover its debts and it went int

44、o liquidation. As a result, depositors' funds were lost. In short,</p><p>  UMB did not follow prudent lending practice; hence, it is as much to blame as the borrowers who failed to pay back. UMB failed

45、to take into cognisance the bad-debt cultural dimension among its borrowers.</p><p>  Enterprise Culture: Necessary In Promoting Enterprise</p><p>  There has been ample evidence to support this

46、 assertion. The research established that in 1992, the government made available Z$100 million to support indigenous businesses and the default rate for this money was about twenty eight percent (28%). In 1994, the gover

47、nment provided $400 million for indigenous enterprises and the default rate for this facility was about thirty two percent (32%). In 1997, the World Bank and the government made another 2$700 million available and the de

48、fault rate was </p><p>  The aspect of bad debt culture relates to the fact that entrepreneurs like borrowing, but not paying back what they borrow. It was established that those who lend to the entrepreneur

49、s face major challenges in collecting their debts from the borrowers. Respondents believed that many entrepreneurs are under the impression that one can borrow but not necessarily need to pay back. As a result of this cu

50、lture and resultant behaviour, some programmes (including donor money mentioned above) that lent m</p><p>  Date Source: Steven Carter.Enterprise culture:necessary in promoting enterprise;less-</p>&l

51、t;p>  ons from enterprise development in Zimbabwe[J]. Journal of Enterpring Culture,2006</p><p>  (3):P177-198譯文二 :</p><p>  企業(yè)文化:促進(jìn)企業(yè)的必備要素</p><p><b>  史蒂文·卡特</b>

52、;</p><p>  本論文研究的是津巴布韋國家文化對企業(yè)發(fā)展方面的影響。以此對15位企業(yè)家及支持他們的團體中的7位成員進(jìn)行了深度的訪(fǎng)問(wèn)??梢源_定及識別的妨礙企業(yè)發(fā)展的國家文化因素有:差的負債文化、唐氏綜合癥、獨立綜合癥、奢侈的生活及模范人物的缺失,拒絕接受企業(yè)家精神,聘用親屬以及低品質(zhì)的物品和服務(wù)。為了促進(jìn)企業(yè)發(fā)展,政府需要識別那些組成國家文化的因素。本論文同時(shí)也識別期望的企業(yè)文化。</p>&

53、lt;p><b>  引言</b></p><p>  早期有關(guān)企業(yè)發(fā)展的研究主要是致力于個(gè)體的個(gè)人特征的研究,比如對成功的需求,操控點(diǎn),冒險能力等等(麥克勒蘭德,1962;麥克勒蘭德和維特,1969;布魯,1988;羅特,1966)??聜?1994)提出單就性格來(lái)解釋企業(yè)家的領(lǐng)袖精神是不充分的,而且有人發(fā)現個(gè)人性格與企業(yè)家的行為無(wú)直接關(guān)系(波爾多,1988;古斯,2001)。因此,更

54、進(jìn)一步的研究轉移到環(huán)境因素(政治、文化、經(jīng)濟、法令政策)對企業(yè)發(fā)展的影響。但政府想要促進(jìn)企業(yè)的發(fā)展需要致力于環(huán)境因素是有爭議性的。 </p><p>  在一個(gè)國家中,企業(yè)發(fā)展已經(jīng)被認為是一種減少失業(yè)、緩解社會(huì )問(wèn)題的途徑,也是一種創(chuàng )造財富的最好方法(諾蘭,2003)。由于以上種種原因,企業(yè)發(fā)展被發(fā)達及發(fā)展中國家所歡迎。和其他國家一樣,津巴布韋已經(jīng)在經(jīng)營(yíng)企業(yè)發(fā)展的計劃,制定并采用那些旨在為企業(yè)發(fā)展創(chuàng )造一個(gè)有益的環(huán)境

55、的政策。不幸的是在津巴布韋為企業(yè)發(fā)展所做的努力是不成功的(聯(lián)合國開(kāi)發(fā)計劃署,2000)。</p><p>  本論文研究的一些因素,它們形成津巴布韋的文化并與企業(yè)文化相關(guān)。同時(shí)也確定這些因素對企業(yè)發(fā)展有所影響。</p><p><b>  文獻綜述</b></p><p>  文化被定義為一系列的影響組織成員的重要的或不重要的生活方式的歷史性進(jìn)

56、程,包括組織成員的學(xué)習價(jià)值、態(tài)度、意義(特也不,1988)。這些進(jìn)化要經(jīng)歷不同的社會(huì )化階段、制度,如家庭、宗教、正式教育等。進(jìn)一步推斷,不同的文化對企業(yè)發(fā)展有不同地影響(霍夫斯泰德,1991)。而且,其他人認為當討論國家的企業(yè)發(fā)展時(shí)國家文化應該被考慮到其中(沃策爾.1997;莫里森,2000)。例如,在美國企業(yè)發(fā)展的成功被認為是促進(jìn)個(gè)人主義文化作用的結果,然而在愛(ài)爾蘭,企業(yè)發(fā)展的失敗被認為是向權威服從的文化作用的結果。在印度,它們促進(jìn)精

57、神和諧與對命運的接受的國家文化使得企業(yè)發(fā)展遇到問(wèn)題(Dana,2000)。相同地,企業(yè)家精神在一些國家是不被認同的,在那里國家形象差,企業(yè)家被認為是貪婪的、不善良、小偷、剝削者等等(莫里森,2000;貝特曼,1997)。另一方面,企業(yè)發(fā)展在那些歡迎它的國家也得到成功,在那些國家它被認為是一種高尚的人生方式而且它的失敗并未被社會(huì )妖魔化(莫里森,2000;汪2001;皮里斯,1998;諾蘭,2003)。企業(yè)成功被那些國家作為模范記錄下來(lái)以此

58、激勵其他人(皮里斯,1998)。模范人物可以是一個(gè)成</p><p>  以他們的企業(yè)為代價(jià)而享有奢侈生活的企業(yè)家是很難成功的(司普潤,1998)。在發(fā)達和發(fā)展中國家中,一些畢業(yè)生不喜歡為中小型或私營(yíng)企業(yè)工作。由于那些有能力通過(guò)經(jīng)商獲得成功的人不接受,使得一些國家很難發(fā)展企業(yè),毛瑞斯提出正式的教育系統培養出順從者而非事業(yè)者而被批判。為解決這個(gè),斯蒂文森認為企業(yè)精神應該在學(xué)校就教給年輕人。</p>&

59、lt;p>  梅雅蘭仁(1994)認為在發(fā)展企業(yè)時(shí),肯定集體里的某幾個(gè)人是困難的,因為被肯定的人會(huì )產(chǎn)生一種優(yōu)越感,而被忽視的就會(huì )厭惡整個(gè)體制。經(jīng)研究的文獻已經(jīng)對影響企業(yè)發(fā)展的文化的各個(gè)方面進(jìn)行了討論,卻對那些組成與企業(yè)發(fā)展有關(guān)的國家文化的因素沒(méi)有全面的分類(lèi)。因此,本論文研究這些能形成國家文化的因素,特別是在津巴布韋它們與企業(yè)發(fā)展有關(guān)。</p><p><b>  研究方法</b><

60、;/p><p>  本論文找尋的是研究和解釋那些在津巴布韋影響企業(yè)發(fā)展的消極文化因素。這需要回答這些問(wèn)題:在津巴布韋影響企業(yè)發(fā)展的國家文化因素是什么?它們是怎樣影響又為什么影響?因此,一種可解釋的方法被采用了(卡森,2001)。這個(gè)方法在研究過(guò)程中,研究者的隱性知識和經(jīng)驗涉及在其中。根據定性研究方法,進(jìn)行了定性設樣,研究者由此從一個(gè)反應進(jìn)行到下一個(gè)(雷門(mén)伊,2001)。這就叫滾雪球。</p><p

61、>  這個(gè)樣本由22個(gè)受訪(fǎng)者組成。所有被選中的受訪(fǎng)者都具有津巴布韋的企業(yè)發(fā)展的專(zhuān)業(yè)知識(雷門(mén)伊,1998;林肯,1990)。他們中有15個(gè)企業(yè)家和7個(gè)支持企業(yè)家的受訪(fǎng)者。設7個(gè)其他受訪(fǎng)者的目的是進(jìn)行三角測量。(雷門(mén)伊,1998林肯 1990;卡爾森 2001)。從企業(yè)家的支持者中得到一些不同于企業(yè)家的觀(guān)點(diǎn)(如財政機構,發(fā)展和培訓機構,政府等)。所有被采訪(fǎng)的企業(yè)家都是開(kāi)始或管理他們的企業(yè)超過(guò)6年的商人。與這個(gè)研究方法同步的是通過(guò)訪(fǎng)問(wèn)

62、指導進(jìn)行面對面深入采訪(fǎng)。這個(gè)訪(fǎng)問(wèn)指導根據的是文獻中已有的和需進(jìn)一步研究的主題。受訪(fǎng)者被提問(wèn)以確定和探討所有他們認為對津巴布韋企業(yè)發(fā)展有消極影響的因素。正如米麗斯、休伯曼和溫格夫所描敘的,通過(guò)專(zhuān)題分析法對所收集的數據進(jìn)行分析。此研究分兩個(gè)階段。最初階段是建立一份影響企業(yè)發(fā)展的文化因素的列單。在完成對22個(gè)受訪(fǎng)者第一輪采訪(fǎng)后,分析他們的反應。由這些結果對第一輪的9個(gè)參與者與對研究熟悉能提供完整研究的人進(jìn)行進(jìn)一步調查。而且,一個(gè)確立來(lái)促進(jìn)企業(yè)

63、發(fā)展的計劃已經(jīng)按三角測量的方法進(jìn)行計算。這是一種找出企業(yè)家所提到的,給企業(yè)發(fā)展帶來(lái)消極影響以及對程序有影響的文化因素是否有集合的方式</p><p>  采取的探究方法運用了隱性知識和經(jīng)驗,因此一些推斷不是來(lái)源于實(shí)例,而是津巴布韋的研究人員的知識和經(jīng)驗。采用相同的研究方法,呈現本項研究的成果,文章總結了受訪(fǎng)者提供的一些觀(guān)點(diǎn)以及強調一些引證的地位,以供他人參考。</p><p>  一位受訪(fǎng)

64、者說(shuō):“要記住,我們的文化不需要促進(jìn)成功的人.成功不是非常我們文化的一部分。</p><p>  根據受訪(fǎng)者的觀(guān)點(diǎn),在津巴布韋企業(yè)發(fā)展不興旺的原因之一是其民族文化。組成津巴布韋民族文化和影響企業(yè)發(fā)展的因素有:壞賬文化,缺乏榜樣,讓打壓綜合癥,依賴(lài)綜合癥,劣質(zhì)貨物和服務(wù)交付,拒絕把創(chuàng )業(yè)視為一種生活方式,雇傭親戚(朋友和親屬)和奢侈的生活。上述因素現在將被詳細說(shuō)明。</p><p><b

65、>  壞賬文化</b></p><p>  一位企業(yè)家說(shuō):人們不回報是因為有壞賬文化;我們需要與壞賬文化作斗爭。聯(lián)合商業(yè)銀行(UMB)破產(chǎn),它破產(chǎn)是因為人們不償還,盡管他想幫助同胞。</p><p>  盡管一些受訪(fǎng)者持有這種觀(guān)點(diǎn),應該指出的是,未付款并不是UMB進(jìn)入清算進(jìn)入唯一原因。UMB成立于高度本土化的地方,并且創(chuàng )始人是一個(gè)本土的企業(yè)家。UMB自認為是本土的行業(yè)老大

66、,并指責跨國銀行未能支持本土企業(yè)家。每周,這家銀行都在國家媒體的廣告上提到上面的指控---需要進(jìn)行本土化。根據UMB,傳統的銀行借貸條件過(guò)于嚴格,大部分本土企業(yè)家可能不會(huì )輕易滿(mǎn)足他們的要求。因此,UMB敦促他們效仿放寬的借款需求的例子,其他方面比較少強調如項目可行性和管理。因此,良好的項目建議(紙)被生產(chǎn)出來(lái),收到資金;不幸的是,錢(qián)沒(méi)收回來(lái),沒(méi)有抵押品的銀行不可能償還其債務(wù),最后倒閉了。因此,儲戶(hù)的資金都失去了。簡(jiǎn)而言之,UMB之外沒(méi)有

67、遵循謹慎借貸的原則。因此,它的倒閉歸咎于大量借款不還的人。UMB在它的借款人上未能考慮到壞賬文化維度。</p><p>  企業(yè)文化:促進(jìn)企業(yè)發(fā)展必備</p><p>  有充足的證據來(lái)支持這種說(shuō)法。研究證實(shí),在1992年,政府提供1億美元用于支持Z本土企業(yè)和違約率,這錢(qián)是大約百分之二十八(28%)。在1994年,政府提供了4億美元用于本土企業(yè)和違約率是大約百分之三十二(32%)。1997

68、年,世界銀行和政府做了另一個(gè)2 7億美元可用和違約率大約是百分之三十一(31%)。在2000年,政府利用24億美元的企業(yè)發(fā)展循環(huán)基金到2002年的只剩2億美元,其余的都補給了糟糕的債務(wù)人。還有其他的例子,某些個(gè)人從銀行借來(lái)的錢(qián)不償還。例如,西班達先生(化名)現在是一個(gè)眾所周知的地產(chǎn)大亨在津巴布韋。自不同銀行借了大量錢(qián)來(lái)購買(mǎi)幾家公司(一家公司是一個(gè)鞋制作公司,另一個(gè)制造企業(yè)集團,和其他人在水泥制造公司購買(mǎi)股票)但也是個(gè)糟糕的債務(wù)人。他用從

69、社會(huì )機構借來(lái)的錢(qián)投入到它的地產(chǎn)公司,但不償還。社會(huì )建設后來(lái)進(jìn)入金融困難,只能依靠中央銀行救助。</p><p>  壞賬文化就像企業(yè)家借錢(qián)不還一樣,債務(wù)人貸款給企業(yè)家面臨的主要挑戰是從債務(wù)人那里收回借款,受訪(fǎng)者認為,許多企業(yè)家都有這種印象,即可以借但不一定需要償還。由于這種文化和合成行為,一些項目(包括上面提到的捐贈的錢(qián)),把錢(qián)借給中小企業(yè)有高違約率。</p><p>  資料來(lái)源:Ste

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